Standard 1: Content and Pedagogical Knowledge
Standard 1: Content and Pedagogical Knowledge
Content and pedagogical knowledge are demonstrated through varied measures. In compliance with Kentucky regulation the Kentucky Education Professional Standards Board (EPSB) requires teacher candidates to pass the Principles of Learning and Teaching (PLT) examination to gain admittance to teacher education. The Principles of Learning and Teaching evidence item demonstrates candidates' knowledge of the learner and learning, content, and appropriate practices and theories related to developmental stages. In addition, Kentucky EPSB guidelines require common course syllabi, common course assignments, EPP key assessments, course work and clinical evaluation instruments to be aligned with Kentucky Teacher Standards (KTS). These standards align with InTASC standards (KTS-InTASC Alignment Table).
The KTS-InTASC Alignment table also demonstrates candidates' understanding of the 10 InTASC standards at appropriate levels across their programs. EPP programs teach the InTASC standards in progression throughout the program requirements in knowledge, application and evaluation stages. Program faculty determine the placement of the InTASC standards throughout the program courses. As candidates progress through their program, evidence is collected through multiple measures such as the COE-TPA Lesson Plan and Evaluation of Field Experiences.
As candidates progress through their programs, measures of their efforts towards mastering skills related to the learner and learning, content, instructional practice, and professional responsibility categories of InTASC standards are collected to demonstrate growing proficiency. Candidates' development of best pedagogical practices is tracked throughout clinical experiences through clinical faculty members' completion of the Field Experience Evaluations and Student Teaching Evaluations. Student teacher's Student Teaching Evaluations and the TPA Eligibility Portfolio indicate proficiency at exit.
Candidates must pass the CASE exam to be admitted to teacher education. This exam documents candidates' content knowledge in reading, mathematics, and writing (Checkpoint Admission Data). The Praxis II table summarizes five years of pass rates for the Praxis II subject specific test indicating candidate proficiency at program exit. The Candidate Dispositions table provides evidence that candidates are assessed on the EPP dispositions and the four (4) C's identified by the Kentucky Education Professional Standards Board (EPSB). The 4 C's are caring, creativity, collaboration and critical thinking. The candidates complete a self-assessment during orientation to teaching, at admission to teacher education, and during a senior level course designated in their program.
Checkpoint Admission Data, Field Experience Evaluations, and Student Teaching Evaluations provide evidence of candidates' content knowledge upon admission to teacher education and progression through course clinical experiences. The Praxis II table indicates candidate proficiency in their content at exit. The Kentucky Teacher Internship Program evidence documents the performance of first year teacher proficiency during their Kentucky Teacher Internship Program. KTIP forms are aligned with the Kentucky Teacher Standards and the InTASC Standards. Candidates' successful completion of the KTIP process is reported to the EPP (see KTIP evidence item).
The EPP ensures that candidates use research and evidence to develop an understanding of the teaching profession. Candidates incorporate research about educational cognitive and behavioral learning theorists in their educational philosophies. In ELE 307 candidates investigate effective teaching strategies to support English Language Learners. In ELE 305 candidates write papers describing the selection of high-quality multicultural literature and use of research-based strategies to develop students' cultural awareness and literacy skills.
EPP faculty model research-based practices during course delivery. Faculty systematically teach research-based strategies during methods courses. For example, REA 412 faculty teach candidates how to formally assess student's literacy skills and adjust instruction based upon perceived needs. These strategies are employed during extensive practicum experiences.
KTS InTASC Alignment and the KTS Course Alignment tables document how course activities and assessments are aligned with recognized national and state teaching standards. These tables indicate where the standards are introduced, demonstrated and mastered. This documents the EPP's efforts to scaffold candidates' research-based practices throughout the program. The Principles of Learning and Teaching, the COE-TPA Lesson Plan Assessment, the Evaluation of Field Experiences, and the TPA Eligibility Portfolio indicate candidate use of research-based practices in assessing students' knowledge, adjusting instruction, and accommodating students' special needs in a classroom setting. Student Teaching Evaluations, the teacher performance portion of Student Teachers' TPA Eligibility Portfolios, and the COE-TPA Lesson Plan table document evidence of candidate use of research to assess, analyze, and appropriately plan P-12 students' educational experiences.
Common course syllabi, course assessments, and EPP-created assessments are aligned with KTS, InTASC and SPA standards to ensure all candidates demonstrate the knowledge and skills necessary to become effective educators.The KTS-InTASC Alignment table documents faculty involvement in curriculum alignment to ensure content is taught. The Evaluation of Field Experiences and the Student Teaching Evaluations tables shows the percentage of candidates who scored outstanding and satisfactory on items within the student teacher evaluation that address content and pedagogical knowledge. The InTASC Alignment table and Courses Assessing KTS table demonstrate alignment with national and state content standards through courses, field experiences, activities and assessment of candidate work.
The Teacher Education Sourcebook provides information on the policies and procedures required for candidates to complete the requirements for successful certification. This document includes information on timelines, application processes, dispositions, examination procedures, clinical experiences, and student teaching practices. The EPSB Admission Data table provides information on candidate GPA and PPST content exam areas indicating candidate academic ability.
The EPP ensures that candidates demonstrate skills and commitment to equip their P-12 students with rigorous college and career ready standards through Praxis II and Principles of Learning and Teaching tables. Candidates show average to above average pass rates on both assessments. The COE-TPA Lesson Plan Assessment, Field Experience Evaluations, Student Teaching Evaluations and TPA Eligibility Portfolio assessment rubrics have performance criteria addressing candidates' use of Common Core State Standards. The majority of candidates scored either outstanding or satisfactory on these items. Checkpoint Admission Data table evidence candidates demonstrate content knowledge at admission to teacher education, during their field experiences, during their student teaching experience and at program exit. The Kentucky Teacher Internship Program provides evidence that first year teachers complete a rigorous performance measure where they are assessed by the school principal, a mentor school-based teacher, and a university coordinator in all aspects of teaching effectiveness, including their ability to design and implement standards-aligned instruction.
The Technology Matrix, Evaluation of Field Experiences, Student Teaching Evaluations, The TPA Eligibility Portfolio, the COE-TPA Lesson Plan Assessment, the KTS Course Alignment table, the Feedback Forms CT-US and Checkpoint Admission Data all include items that demonstrate that candidates are equipped to use technology in their course assignments, lesson design, implementation and assessment. They also use the online Recruiter application system to apply for admission to teacher education and admission to student teaching.
The EPP has a unique partnership with the Kentucky Academy of Technology Education (KATE). KATE provides training opportunities to teacher candidates and faculty. Included in the KATE evidence report is documentation of the number and type of technology training opportunities that are offered to help candidates develop technological proficiency and enrich their professional practice. KATE also supports technology in the classrooms by providing and maintaining technology for faculty and students to use in teaching. The Technology Matrix demonstrates the use of laptops, iPads, Chromebooks, projectors, video preparation and editing lap space, a collaboration lab space, and an innovation lab. The Technology Matrix also documents technology usage within courses and a sampling of the types of assignments, assessments and equipment the candidates use. The EPP has worked with KATE to secure lab space and equipment to provide an on-site testing facility of the Praxis and PLT examinations. The Curriculum Library provides candidates with testing materials and online training to study and pass these assessments as evidenced by candidate Praxis/PLT Pass Rates.
The preponderance of evidence strongly suggest that pedagogy, research-based methods and measured classroom experiences are key elements for ensuring candidates complete student teaching successfully and pass the Praxis and PLT exit examinations to qualify for initial licensure. To continue to move forward, the EPP would benefit from more authentic, comprehensive feedback from stakeholders (i.e., schools, superintendents, alumni, clinicians and graduates) to inform program improvement so the provider can continue to train quality teachers for tomorrow's classrooms.